EAJS Conference Grant Programme 2016/17
Report on the Summer School “Jews and Christians between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean: Co-existence and Conflict”, 10-21 July 2017, Central European University (CEU), Budapest
Organisers: István Perczel (CEU), Alexandra Cuffel (Ruhr University Bochum [RUB])
Report prepared by István Perczel
The course was organised as the first popularising event for the ERC project “Jews and Christians in the East: Strategies of Interaction between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean”; a European Research Council project based at the Center for Religious Studies, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany, and carried out in cooperation with the Center for Eastern Mediterranean Studies at CEU. The principal investigator of the project is Alexandra Cuffel, Professor of Jewish Studies at Ruhr University Bochum. During the five-year duration of the project, we plan four such summer schools, which we deem to be one of the most powerful means for distributing the new knowledge gained through our research. Thanks to the generous grant received from the EAJS, we could offer fellowships and support to students coming from all over the world (India, the Caucasus, Israel, Russia, the United States, Canada, Australia and throughout Europe), who might not have been able to participate otherwise. These students were exposed to the results of the latest research into the history and the culture of the Jewish populations of the East and into their contacts and interaction with their Christian neighbours. In exchange, the students contributed to our subjects with their own, often ground-breaking, research. Our experience is that this construction is a powerful means not only for disseminating new knowledge in this field but also for gaining it.
The original mission statement (event rationale)
Here I provide an abridged version of the original proposal for the summer school as it was submitted to Central European University:
a) Statement of purpose:
Aim and subject of the summer school: This course will introduce students to the ways in which Jews and Christians interacted in the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Caucasus and the Indian Ocean in the period 600-1800; that is, from the beginning of Islam to the defeat and death of Tippu Sultan, marking the takeover of the colonial power of the Medieval trade routes. Thus, the course will examine and present Jewish-Christian relations in the East, in diverse regions and cultures within the period of the rise and expansion of Islam, from Arabia and via Persia before and during the expansion of the colonial European powers.
Importance of the SUN course: The course will highlight and disseminate at all levels research performed in a European network, and will contribute to the enhancement of CEU’s mission of being a bridge-institution between East and West. It contributes to the research and teaching programs of two dynamic research centres at CEU, namely the Center for Eastern Mediterranean Studies and the Center for Religious Studies. Moreover, the course is expected to contribute to the social, political and cultural analysis of areas that are currently acute conflict zones. The methods will employ a critical evaluation of the underlying historical trends of interreligious, multi-ethnic and inter-communal relations. Therefore, the course targets both historians and students of contemporary issues in the Middle East, Central Asia and Southeast Asia. The course is aimed at providing basic tools for cultural competence that is indispensable in both the academia and the political and state-management job markets. In this way, this SUN program is also linked to the university-wide intellectual theme of the “Social Mind”; the course seeks to bridge the gap between the social sciences, anthropology and political science on the one hand, and the typical humanities oriented towards textual studies, art-history, archaeology, history and linguistics on the other hand.
b) Targeted audience and required skills
The targeted audience is advanced PhD and MA students, young researchers, advanced BA students (requires special approval). The call for applications will address students of history and culture as well as of contemporary studies in both the humanities and the social sciences, who would benefit from a deeper understanding and the reconceptualization of contemporary zones of conflict and religious tension in the regions under investigation.
Required skills: (1. historians) background in the history of at least one of the regions being covered. Familiarity with at least one “classical” language such as Arabic, Syriac/Aramaic, Hebrew, Persian, or in a medieval vernacular language such as: Armenian, Georgian, Ethiopian, Malayalam, or, alternately, training in art history, material culture or archaeology of one of the regions specified above. (2. social sciences students) enhanced acquaintance – linguistic, political or cultural – with at least one nation-state included in the region under scrutiny.
How to bridge between the disciplinary fields: The course will provide an interdisciplinary teaching method built into its structure: introductory lectures before a diverse audience of students followed by discussions will form the fundamental teaching, while the – often elective – tutorials will address smaller groups and give in-depth disciplinary training in textual analysis (source-language training) or fieldwork (anthropological/archeological methods).
c) Brief overview of the course
On the subject: Whereas the social and inter-religious encounters of Jews and Christians have been thoroughly studied in Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean, Central Asia, East Africa and Southeast Asia remain under-researched in this respect. This topic is the focus of a research group at the Ruhr-University-Bochum and CEU, entitled “Jews and Christians between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean”, funded by an ERC Consolidator Grant, which intends to organise a series of summer schools based alternately at CEU Budapest and at RUB in Bochum. The present course will be the first in a series, inaugurating its aims and methods.
On the research group/teaching body: The group consists of Alexandra Cuffel (Principal Investigator, RUB), Barbara Roggema, Zara Pogossian, Sophia Dege-Müller and Ophira Gamliel (RUB), Verena Krebs, Bar Kribus (Hebrew University, Jerusalem), István Perczel and Radu Mustaţă (CEU).
On the ERC project: Until this project, the study of Jewish-Christian interactions during the Middle Ages and the early modern period had focused on the asymmetrical power relationship in which Jews were a minority group living within a dominant Christian or Muslim culture. Such research had been extensive especially in the context of medieval Western Europe and, more recently, the Byzantine Empire and the Caliphates. This historiographic bias necessarily implies that previous studies had focussed on majority-minority relations. The project explores Jewish-Christian relations in the Muslim world, in Eastern Christian kingdoms and in polytheist South India, examining the relevant sources written in Coptic, Arabic, Syriac, Ge’ez, Armenian, Georgian and Malayalam after the late antique period. The underlying postulation is that inter-relational paradigms of conflicts and collaborations evolve in diverse ways depending on changing balances of power and regional factors beyond the dogmas and belief systems at the ‘universal’ core of the three Abrahamic religions.
On the course: The instructors will introduce participants to the complex dynamics of Jewish-Christian interaction as outlined above in three major patterns:
1) Jews and Christians under Christian monarchies in the ‘buffer states’ between the Christian and the Islamicate world: Ethiopia, Armenia, Georgia;
2) Jews and Christians under Islam: Eastern Mediterranean and Persia;
3) Jews, Christians and Muslims as minorities in South Asia. in Southeast Asia and India.
Knowledge and skills to be acquired in the course:
The course is about imparting knowledge but, even more so, about imparting skills. These will be theoretical and methodological/linguistic skills.
1) Theoretical skills
- Participating students will deconstruct various stereotypes, including the “civilizational model”, which postulates and essentializes independent “cultures” or “civilizations” that allegedly developed on their own and were united into a global economic and cultural system only through the colonial conquests and the subsequent opening of free trade across the oceans. Instead, our research shows a global world avant la lettre.
- Participating students will be encouraged to examine how religions and related cultural phenomena developed in interaction – both through co-existence and through conflict alike. Such an approach to analysing the pre-modern past will encourage students to realize that religious identities and the forces that influence religious interactions are as complex in the modern world as they were in the past. The course aims at alerting the participants to the problems facing modern decision-makers in approaching contemporary conflicts through the concepts of “civilizations” determined by religions, and through their eventual “clash”, deemed inevitable according to the presently accepted theories.
The format for learning these skills will be lectures/discussions.
2) Methodological/linguistic skills:
- Participating students will be introduced to little known linguistic and philological phenomena, such as the role of religiolects and minority community-based scriptures, such as the use of the Judaeo-Arabic, Christian Arabic, Judaeo-Persian, Christian Persian, Jewish Malayalam and Syro-Malayalam dialects, the use of the Hebrew, Syriac, Arabic alphabets for writing foreign languages etc. These will be taught at the advanced and the basic levels according to the needs of the students.
- Participating students will be introduced to the monuments and the methodological tools to deal with elements of the communities’ material culture: artworks, architecture, manuscripts.
The main format for learning these skills will be tutorials in smaller groups.
A note on the application procedure: As students will be invited to present their particular research topic and discuss it with their peers and the instructors, a description of the students’ research topic and a proposal for the questions to be discussed will be part of the application material.
Narrative Report on the Summer Course
The course was planned as a two-week programme. Nobody could foresee that the summer school would fall within a troubled period of the life of Central European University, when its survival in Hungary became questioned because of the political upheaval around the university and its founder, Mr George Soros. Yet, there were only very few cancellations, so that we were able to hold the summer school with 20 students, who earnestly participated in the programs. The level of those selected was very high, as testified to by the research proposals and definitively proven by the student presentations at the end. The required readings were uploaded before the beginning of the course to the course’s e-learning website (http://sunlearning.ceu.hu/course/view.php?id=460), so that the students may study them before coming to Budapest. During the course, additional material, such as the power-point presentations used at the lectures, additional readings, material requested by the students and student presentations, were added to the website.
The general concept was to apply a uniform schedule throughout the course: in the first morning session, a general introduction to a general or area-specific subject; in the second morning session, discussion of the readings; in the first afternoon section, introduction to a source language permitting to study Jewish-Christian relations in the East: Judeo-Arabic, Syriac, Ge’ez, Georgian, Classical Armenian and Malayalam, as well as to the handling of objects belonging to material culture; in the fourth afternoon session, reading texts in the original, or in translation, or reading objects of material culture. We scheduled the student presentations for the last two days.
Somewhat beyond our own expectations, there were enough students capable of reading texts in some of the source languages, namely Syriac, Malayalam and Ge’ez. However, there was general interest in all the source languages, so that we were presenting texts in a mixed manner: while the Judeo-Arabic, Syriac, Armenian and Malayalam texts were given to the students, we discussed the texts in English translation, either from accepted translations, or prepared by us for the sake of the summer course. These language classes were particularly engaging: Barbara Roggema, while discussing the Syriac version of the Christian Bahira legend – a text of crucial importance for Jewish-Christian relations under early Muslim rule – engaged those in the audience knowing Syriac to translate the text orally into English, so that the whole group, consisting mainly of people not knowing Syriac, were able to follow and enjoy the readings as well as entering the discussion. In a similar way, Ophira Gamliel could give a part of the Malayalam text of the Keralolpatti (“The Origins of Kerala”), on the conversion of the Cheraman Perumal to Islam, as there were students from Kerala and members of the faculty, who were able to read Malayalam. Sophia Dege-Müller gave two well-constructed classes on Ge’ez; one was an introduction to the script and phonology, and the second was reading the source language with three capable students, while the others remained seated to enjoy an unmediated contact with the language, regardless of their ignorance, as was also the case with the other language classes. The rest of the language classes first introduced the respective languages, and, then, turned to reading texts in English translations. Importantly, all the primary source material dealt with interreligious subjects and topics.
Thanks to the generous funding received from diverse sources – the EAJS, the ERC and CEU – the long programme of the summer school was interspersed with social events. There was a reception in the evening of the first day for all the students and faculty, an excursion to the picturesque city of Szentendre in the week-end, where the museum tickets and the lunch of the entire group was covered, a faculty dinner organised, as well as other outdoor events, such as a musical concert by two students, Hugo Maat, who played the piano, and Mark Aranha, who was playing the guitar and singing his own compositions. Arnab Dutta sang a chant by Rabindranath Tagore.
Detailed Report on the Summer Course
Here we provide an updated version of the course syllabus, including corrections for how the courses actually ran:
Day 1, morning sessions
First, István Perczel presented the aims and prospects of the summer school. This was followed by all the teaching team members, the students and the course coordinator introducing themselves to the community. Then, Alexandra Cuffel presented the motivation and scope of research into Eastern Jewish and Christian relations. She used a colourful Powerpoint presentation, Jews and Christians in the East: Strategies of Interaction between the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean, 500-1800, which illustrated the framework of the ERC-funded research project, which is the basis both for the research of the team and for the summer course.
Subject no. 1: Concepts and Theories of Otherness
Alexandra Cuffel and Barbara Roggema
The introductory lecture into the subject of ‘otherness’ was given by Alexandra Cuffel, who examined broadly various theories of othering, particularly as they had been applied to religious and ethnic minorities in medieval Europe and Byzantium. Then, we discussed the degree and ways in which these models may apply to medieval and early modern Jewish-Christian groups in Caucasus, West and Central Asia, the Eastern Mediterranean, Ethiopia and South India.
The discussion of the readings was led by Barbara Roggema. She patiently guided the students through a philosophical-logical text on Otherness, demonstrating an important aspect of our project, namely interdisciplinarity, bridging the gap between specific issues in medieval studies and frontline post-colonial contemporary studies.
Afternoon session: Source Languages – Introduction
Every language teacher introduced the respective language and sources in 15 minutes, with a few words about the programme for the coming two weeks.
Evening: reception for all the participants
Day 2, morning sessions
Inter-religious Relations: Eastern Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean
Ophira Gamliel and István Perczel
The Eastern Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean constituted a vast area of long-distance trade routes of transfer of goods and cultural exchange. The political powers in the respective regions kept on shifting through the centuries, as from the Roman Empire to the Byzantine and, later on, the Umayyads, Abbasids, Seljuqs, Mamluks etc. in the Eastern Mediterranean. In Central Asia, the Sassanian Empire gave way to the Abbasids, Ghaznavids and Safavids. In South India, there were also rising and vanishing states and dominant dynasties such as the Chola, Pandya and Chera. Opposed to this, the structure of the trade networks remained more or less the same in the longue durée. Religious minorities, such as Zoroastrians, Jews, Christians, Muslims in the South, Jews, Christians, Manicheans and others in the North formed interreligious trade guilds and were the main actors of this transmission.
On this background, two presentations were made, one by István Perczel on Arabian Sea trade and the pre-modern Oikumene – this treated the subject from the 1st to the 9th century, with a little outlook to later development – and one by Ophira Gamliel on Interreligious Relations between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean 900s-1500s, treating the continuation.
As the two presentations occupied much time and there was intense debate, there remained little time for discussing the readings.
Afternoon sessions: Introduction to Arabic and Judeo-Arabic
Alexandra Cuffel and Barbara Roggema
What are the sources in Arabic and Judeo-Arabic relevant for the study of the history of inter-religious relations between Eastern Jews and Christians? This class was a general introduction to the language family of Hebrew and Arabic and on issues concerning palaeography and codicology.
Source Readings in Arabic and Judeo-Arabic
Guided readings in Christian Arabic and Judeo-Arabic (supplemented with translations)
Day 3, morning sessions
Conversion, conquest and cultural transfer in the Caucasus and Anatolia
Zara Pogossian and Stephen Rapp
This lecture had two foci. On the one hand, conversion to Christianity in Southern Caucasus and narratives about conversion were discussed. In this part of the lecture, the role of the Jews and Judaism as well as of Jerusalem was compared and set against the backdrop of each other in the Caucasian conversion narratives. Then, the kind of attitudes (or changes of attitudes) towards Jews that seem to take place after Islamic conquests were discussed, as they are traced in the sources. These attitudes were placed in a larger Persian context and its integration with and into early Christian and Jewish sources.
Discussion of Readings
Afternoon session: Introduction to Material Culture
How to read something that does not necessarily contain writing? And what role can non-written, material sources play in our study of medieval history? This class presented a case study to demonstrate the possibilities involved in the emerging field of medieval art-historiography, where material sources are not used to merely illustrate or supplement information gathered from written sources but are ‘read’ as independent, complementary historical sources in their own right.
Source Readings of Material Culture Objects
The aim of this class was to look at a number of material culture sources – from murals and icons to objects of everyday life – to tease out what this category of historical sources may reveal about Jewish-Christian interaction in pre-modern times. After a brief discussion of the readings, the class was continued outside CEU, in a more informal context.
Day 4, morning sessions
Identity and community as factual fiction or fictitious fact
Alexandra Cuffel and Sophia Dege-Müller
The idea or understanding of a “Jewish” identity was perceived in very different ways according to context. An “Israelite” background might have had a very positive connotation, while a “Jewish” one was often equated with being a heretic. Yet it was clearly understood from the Christian perspective that Jews and Christians shared the same communal origin, while the origin of Muslims was taken as something else. This class was focusing on such modes of referring to communities and how these modes changed or adapted according to purpose and needs at a given time.
Discussion of Readings
Afternoon sessions: Introduction to Georgian
This class presented the history of the script and of literary evolution from a comparative perspective with Armenian language and literature. Also, it introduced the students to the sources on the history of the Georgian language, especially those relevant for the study of Jewish-Christian relations in ancient and medieval Georgia.
Georgian Source Reading
Selected portions of medieval Georgian literature were read, namely from the Moktsevai Kartlisai (“Conversion of Kartli”) and the Kartlis Tskhovreba (“History of Kartli”). As there was nobody in the audience knowing Georgian, all the texts were read in English.
Day 5, morning sessions
Deciphering Jews, Christians and Muslims in the Apocalyptic Traditions
Barbara H Roggema and Zara Pogossian
Apocalyptic sources, especially those that fall into the category of “political apocalypses”, often become vectors of inter-religious polemic. This lecture provided a brief theoretical background to the genre of apocalyptic sources. Then, some of the topoi that appear in this type of texts with regard to Jews were discussed, for example in relation to the Antichrist or the “Life of the Antichrist”, but also theological reflections about Jews and the End of the World, giving rise to different responses and different configurations. The lecture stressed the difficulty of simple classifications of “positive” or “negative” attitudes towards the religious “Others” as emerges in these texts.
Discussion on Readings
Afternoon sessions: Introduction to Syriac
The class introduced the Aramaic language family and the place of Classical Syriac and of Modern Aramaic dialects within it. The three traditions of writing and pronouncing Classical Syriac were presented, namely Eastern/Nestorian, Western/Jacobite and Melkite, with a detour to Syriac in India. The class briefly dealt with writing systems, the use of the dots, the introduction of vowel signs in the 8th-9th centuries, Garshuni scripts (Syriac alphabet used to write Arabic, Turkish, Armenian, Greek, Latin, Malayalam), the range and scope of Syriac literature, and also with Classical Syriac in the Middle Ages and in Modernity.
Syriac Source Reading
Barbara H. Roggema and István Perczel
Sources on Jews from the Middle East and India were confronted. Barbara Roggema presented the Christian Bahira Legend, while Radu Mustaƫă and István Perczel presented Kadavil Chandy Kattanar’s newly found poems on the Hebrew and Syriac languages. The aim of the confrontation was to show that while the image of the Jews in the Middle East is negative and polemical, in India it is rather friendly.
Day 6, Excursion to the city of Szentendre, visiting museums, lunch covered by the summer course in a Serbian restaurant
Day 1, morning sessions
Shared Religious Practices and Cultural Diversity
Ophira Gamliel and Alexandra Cuffel
Jews and Christians in the Islamic world and beyond have shared many religious practices with Muslims and with each other. The most prominent example is of shared festivals and pilgrimage sites. The presentation discussed the relation between sharing sacred spaces and times, the formation of trade networks and the impact of the two on cultural diversity.
Discussion on Readings
Afternoon sessions: Introduction to Ge’ez
The class gave the students an introduction to the written heritage of Christians and Jews in Ethiopia. It introduced the relevant sources and how to access and work with them. Here the specificity is that there is no such thing as Ethiopian Jewish literature proper as the tradition of the Beta Israel is purely oral. Yet, Jews were using Christian manuscripts for their own purposes and corrected them. The class also provided a brief outline of sources available in Ge’ez and discussed literary Ethiopian Christian topoi about Jews from collections of Marian miracles as well as anti-Judaic excerpts from the writings coming from Zar’a Ya’qob (15th century).
Ge’ez Source Reading
Selected passages from collections of Marian miracles as well as anti-Judaic excerpts from the writings coming from Zar’a Ya’qob were read.
Day 2, morning sessions
Jews and Christians in Contact: The Archaeological Evidence
What premodern archaeological sources exist for the study of Jewish-Christian contact and interactions? Do such sources simply demonstrate literal co-existence of both groups in the same locations? In Armenia, the discovery of a Jewish graveyard upended assumptions about Jewish life based on written sources over the last few years and, in Ethiopia, both Jews and Christians formed monastic groups and maintained monasteries, whose archaeological remains have recently garnered scholarly attention. The session presented examples of archaeological source material and showed how archaeological studies and historical research can reveal hitherto unexplored – and unexpected – facets of Jewish-Christian history.
Jewish customs in Ethiopian Christianity and the Beta Israel: Archaeological and Anthropological Evidence
Instead of the originally planned discussion on readings, Bar Kribus presented the Jewish traits in Ethiopian Christianity, as well as the evidence on the history, the customs and the archaeological remains of the Beta Israel, treating also the theories about their origins.
Afternoon sessions: Introduction to Malayalam
The class presented the linguistic and literary history of Malayalam as inherently related to the advent of the Arabs along the Indian Ocean maritime trade routes. Issues such as script, dialects, language documentation and regional literature were treated, and a brief survey was given on the sources relevant for the study of the sociocultural history of Jews, Christians and Muslims in the Malayalam-speaking region.
Source Readings in Malayalam
Selected sections from Christian and Hindu sources were read in comparative view and in relation to the history of inter-religious relations.
Day 3, morning sessions
Oral Sources for the History of Jewish-Christian Relations
Ophira Gamliel and Bar Kribus
The study of the history of minorities in certain regions – and especially in South India and in Ethiopia – is often obstructed by the lack of written sources and archaeological evidence. For this reason, scholars tend to relate to oral narratives and linguistic practices and infer from them about the past. While this is problematic, it can nevertheless serve as a tool in a critical construction of the history of such minority groups and their inter-religious relations. Some results of fieldwork in interviews and language documentation and their implications on the broader field of the history of inter-minorities relations were presented.
Discussion on Readings
Afternoon sessions: Introduction to Classical Armenian
The lecture provided a basic introduction to Armenian (classical Armenian, later developments and basic notions on the dialects). Then, students were introduced into the kind of sources preserved in this language. Thus, Agathangelos, Movses Khorenatsi, Paustos Buzant, Sebeos were briefly presented, with their relevant information on Jewish-Christian relations, be those real or imagined.
This was followed by Classical Armenian Source Reading, which turned out a slow and focused reading under Pogossian’s guidance, who inspired the students to engage in textual hermeneutic practices.
Excerpts from the aforementioned sources in English translation were read and analysed.
Day 4, morning sessions
World History beyond the Civilisational Model
István Perczel and Verena Krebs
The purpose of this class was to summarise the classes taken during the summer course with conclusive remarks on related theoretical concerns. The claim was made that the unfolding history of Eastern Jewish-Christian relations as presented during the summer school is seriously challenging the “civilisational model” until recently dominating the historical sciences, public discourse and, even political decision making. István Perczel gave a brief history of the civilizational model. During the discussion we questioned the claim of authorities such as Weber, Jaspers, Spengler, Toynbee and, more recently, Eisenstein and Huntington, that postulates separate homogenous “civilisational units” more or less corresponding to empires and based on religion. It was proposed that, rather, we find an interconnected network with durable structures, resisting ephemeral political change and creating a world economy and world culture with smaller economic and cultural units organically living within the whole. An alternative model is needed to address the role of religious and other minorities as mediators between socioeconomic sub-units within larger political and cultural complexes.
Instead of a discussion on readings, Verena Krebs gave a presentation on recent changes in the conception of Medieval Studies as also witnessed by the last International Congress of Medieval Studies in Leeds, which testifies to a post-colonial, subaltern and gendered turn in the field.
The afternoon sessions were dedicated to student presentations.
In the evening, students were giving a concert: Hugo Maat was playing the piano, Mark Aranha was playing the guitar and singing his own compositions, while Arnab Dutta sang a poem by Rabindranath Tagore.
Day 5 was dedicated to student presentations and to a concluding discussion.
What we have learned and the tasks ahead
The original idea was to distribute to a wider audience the results of innovative research into the everyday contacts and relations of Jews and Christians in the East, in a context that, before our project, had received hardly any attention in the research on Jewish-Christian relations. The summer school, perhaps not entirely anticipated as such, turned out as an opportunity for us to engage in each other’s research. The challenge to translate new results for a wider, non-specialist audience coincides with the challenge to understand our own results at a deeper level and to be able to set our own specific research, restricted to certain areas and languages, into the larger picture. Thus, perhaps, we have learned from each other as much as the students. Also, we have received very high-level student contributions; Some students presented ground-breaking research, not necessarily in our specific field of medieval inter-religious encounters, though all of them were about some sort of inter-religious and cross-cultural exchanges. Thus, we have decided to maintain the scholarly network created by the summer course, to remain in contact with our younger colleagues, and to involve them, as far as possible, in the JewsEast research.
Hopefully these trends will be consolidated through the summer schools of the next years. We have received abundant student feed-back, which we will incorporate in our future endeavours aimed at public outreach and the dissemination of the research results.
The most important continuation is the next summer school, which will take place in Bochum, at the Ruhr University, in the summer of 2018. The publications are those of the ERC project, which are in the pipeline. Because our intention is to maintain the network created for the course, the e-learning website will be live at least for one more year after the end of the course. During this year, all the participants, instructors and students alike, will have access to the website and will be able to download material directly, or to upload material via the coordinator of the summer course. The students were encouraged to approach us for further tuition, information on activities and contributions for publishing or presenting in the framework of the ERC-funded project.
The actual programme of the event, including the necessary changes
Link for the programme of the event, as it was advertised on the course website. For the necessary changes, please see the narrative report above.
For more information, please visit the course website at: https://summeruniversity.ceu.edu/jewschristians-2017